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Capital :  
Kiev (Republic of Ukraine)
Population :  
Area :  
Approximately 233,090 sq mi 
Language :  
Currency :  
Hryvnia (UAH)
GDP per capita :  
Time Zone :  
Eastern European Time (UTC+2[7])
The Ukrainian people belong to the southern branch of the Eastern Slavs. Their ancestors came from Scandinavia in the 800s. The name 'Ukraina', which originated in the twelfth century, denotes borderland: the area lacks natural frontiers and has a troubled history. The territory which is now Ukraine had only brief periods of independence prior to 1991 – under the Cossacks from the fifteenth century until union with Russia in 1654, and very briefly after the Bolshevik Revolution in 1917. The principality of Kievan Rus was established on the River Dnieper and its tributaries in the ninth century and Orthodox Christianity was established in the tenth. Kievan Rus became the centre of a great civilisation but fell in 1240 to the Mongols. They in turn were driven out by the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in 1362. In 1569 the Grand Duchy merged with the Kingdom of Poland to form the Polish Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Following an uprising led by the Cossack leader, Bogdan Khmelnitsky, in 1654, Eastern Ukraine accepted Russian protection. A striking equestrian statue of Khmelnitsky pointing in the direction of Moscow stands in the centre of modern day Kyiv. Ukrainian autonomy in the east finally disappeared under the reign of Catherine the Great of Russia. When the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth collapsed in 1795, Western Ukraine became part of the Habsburg Empire.
Nineteenth century Ukrainian writers and intellectuals, inspired by the nationalistic spirit stirring elsewhere in Europe, were determined to revive Ukrainian linguistic and cultural traditions in both Western Ukraine, which was controlled by the Habsburg Empire, and Eastern Ukraine, which was controlled by the Russian Empire. Russia in particular imposed strict limits on attempts to elevate the Ukrainian language and culture, even banning its use and study.
The chaotic events following the Bolshevik revolution in 1917 and the collapse of the Habsburg Empire in 1918 prompted Ukrainian nationalists to try to create an independent Ukraine. Between 1917 and 1918, three separate Ukrainian republics declared independence. None survived. By 1921 the western part of Ukraine had been incorporated into Poland while the larger, central and eastern part became part of the Soviet Union.
The Ukrainian national idea persevered during the interwar years. Soviet reactions were severe, particularly under Stalin, who imposed terror campaigns that ravaged the intellectual class. He also created artificial famines as part of his forced collectivisation of agriculture, killing millions of previously independent peasants and others throughout the country. Estimates of deaths from the 1932-33 famine alone range from 3 million to 7 million. Following the attempted coup against Gorbachev, the Ukrainian parliament (the Supreme Rada) declared Ukraine's independence on 24 August 1991. This was confirmed by referendum on 1 December 1991, with 90% approving the decision. Ukraine's formal independence was recognised by the international community on 30 December 1991.
About Ukraine
Ukraine is a country of Central-Eastern Europe. It occupies the South-Western part of Eastern-European Plains and a part of the Carpathian and Crimean mountains. It stretches for 893 km from North to the South and 1,316 km from West to East. Ukraine borders Russia, Belarus, Moldova, Slovakia, Romania, Hungary and Poland on land and Russia, Georgia, Bulgaria, Romania and Turkey on the sea. The country gained its independence from the Soviet Union on December 1, 1991. The capital and largest city is Kyiv.
Ukraine is located in moderate latitudes and has outlets to Black and Azov Seas. The geopolitical location on the boarder of Western and Eastern peoples and cultures considerably influenced history and current development of the nation. In 1945, Ukraine became a member of the United Nations (UN). In December 1991, it was a founding member of the CIS, and in November 1995 it became a full member of the Council of Europe. It is also a member of the Organization on Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE). In 1992, Ukraine became a member of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (World Bank). It also then became affiliated with the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD).
In 2001, Ukraine had 49.5 million residents. In terms of population, Ukraine ranks 5th in Europe (after Germany, Italy, Great Britain and France) and 21st in the world. It has 7.3% of Europe's and 1% of the global population. 68% of Ukrainians live in urban areas while 32% live in countryside. The official language of the country is Ukrainian. A majority of the population adheres to Eastern Orthodox Christianity. Other denominations include Roman Catholics, Jews, Muslims, and Baptists.
Nature and climate of Ukraine
Ukraine's landscape is mostly flat. Approximately 95% of lands are plains and 5% are mountains. Ukraine is located in two climatic zones: moderate and subtropical (southern shore of Crimea). The weather and climate of Ukraine's territory positively influence economic activity, tourism and recreation, as well as allow for use of ecologically clean resources of wind and sun.
Most of Ukraine has four distinct seasons and a moderate, continental climate, with cold winters and warm summers. The Crimean coast, however, has a Mediterranean climate, with mild, wet winters and hot, dry summers.
Ukraine is a sea power. In the south it is washed by Black and Azov Seas. The Black Sea's coastline in Ukraine is 1,540 km. The Black Sea is connected to the Azov Sea, Sea of Marble and the Mediterranean Sea. The southern location, favorable climate and sandy beaches make the Black Sea and Azov Seas among the most important and attractive recreational spots in Ukraine.
Ukraine's territory is covered with a dense network of 73,000 large and small rivers and about 20,000 lakes. The biggest river systems are Dniepro, Danube, Dnistro, Southern Bug and Northern Donets. The Dniepro (Dnepr) is the largest river in Ukraine and the third largest and longest river in Europe.

Eastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea. Border countries: Belarus 891 km, Hungary 103 km, Moldova 939 km, Poland 428 km, Romania (south) 169 km, Romania (west) 362 km, Russia 1,576 km, Slovakia 90 km.


Exchange rate: 7.99 hryvnvya (UAH) per US$1 (end 2011); 12.54 hryvnvya (UAH) per £1 (end 2011)
GDP: 2009 US$117.2bn ; 2010 US$ 137.9bn; 2011 US$ 154.6bn (projected)
GDP per head (PPP): 2010 US$ 6,716
Major industries: Coal, electric power, ferrous and non-ferrous metals, machinery and transport equipment, chemicals, agriculture, food-processing (especially sugar)

On 22 December 2008 the World Bank's Board of Executive Directors approved the Third Development Policy Loan for Ukraine worth $500 million. In July 2010 the IMF Executive Board approved a $15.2 billion Stand By Arrangement for Ukraine in support of the authorities’ economic adjustment and reform programme. However in 2011 the IMF postponed the third tranche of this loan due to insufficient progress by the Ukrainian government on pension reform and the removal of domestic energy subsidies. , Major governmental aid organisations active in Ukraine include USAID and the EU.

Ukraine considers Euro-Atlantic integration its primary foreign policy objective, but in practice balances its relationship with Europe and the United States with strong ties to Russia. The European Union's Partnership and Cooperation Agreement (PCA) with Ukraine went into force on March 1, 1998. The European Union (EU) has encouraged Ukraine to implement the PCA fully before discussions begin on an association agreement. The EU Common Strategy toward Ukraine, issued at the EU Summit in December 1999 in Helsinki, recognizes Ukraine's long-term aspirations but does not discuss association. On January 31, 1992, Ukraine joined the then-Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (now the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe-OSCE), and on March 10, 1992, it became a member of the North Atlantic Cooperation Council. Ukraine also has a close relationship with NATO and has declared interest in eventual membership. It is the most active member of the Partnership for Peace (PfP). President Viktor Yushchenko has indicated that he supports Ukraine joining the EU in the future. (Ukraine and the European Union).
Diplomatic relations between India and Ukraine were established in January 1992. Indian Embassy in Kiev was opened in May 1992 and Ukraine opened its Mission in New Delhi in February 1993. The Consulate General of India in Odessa functioned from 1962 till its closure in March 1999.
Trade Relations
The India Ukraine trade relation and economic cooperation has developed on the basis the long-standing friendship between the two countries. In March, 1992 the Treaty on Friendship and Cooperation was signed between India and Ukraine, providing a major boost to India-Ukraine trade relations.
India Ukraine trade relations have been developing at a very fast pace. There has been a threefold increase in the India Ukraine trade during 2003-2005 and it has exceeded US$ 1 billion. Ukraine imports from India have doubled and stand at US$ 3,214 million in 2006, while Ukraine exports to India have increased by 3.6 times and stands at US$ 7,369 million in 2006. The total turnover in India Ukraine trade during 2005-2006 has exceeded US$ 1.2 billion. The main items being imported by Ukraine from India are drugs, pharmaceutical production,Ores and minerals, tobacco products, tea, coffee, spices, silk and jute.The main items imported by India from Ukraine are chemicals, equipment, machines and engines.